$\alpha $

Albedo

${\alpha}_{p}$

Planetary albedo

$\delta $

Solar declination

$\delta $
^{13}C

Delta value for the relative abundance of ^{13}C in a sample

$\delta $
^{18}O

Delta value for the relative abundance of ^{18}O in a sample

$\Delta Q$

Radiative forcing at the
tropopause

$\epsilon $

Emissivity of an object

${\epsilon}_{obl}$

Obliquity

$\phi $

Latitude (on Earth)

$\rho $

Density

${\theta}_{s}$

Solar zenith distance

$\lambda $

Longitude (on Earth)

${\lambda}_{f}$

Feedback parameter

${\lambda}_{t}$

True longitude

$\eta $

Seasurface elevation

$\sigma $

StefanBoltzman constant (= 5.67 10^{8} W m^{2} K^{4})

$\tilde{\omega}$

Infrared transmissivity of the atmosphere

${\tau}_{a}$

Longitude of the perihelion measured from the
vernal equinox

$\stackrel{\u20d7}{\Omega}$

Angular velocity vector of the Earth



AABW

Antarctic Bottom Water

AAIW

Antarctic Intermediate Water

ACC

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

AD

Anno Domini, yr AD is the number of years since the beginning of the Christian (or Common) era

AGCM

Atmospheric General Circulation Model

$Alk$

Alkalinity

AOGCM

Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model

BC

Before Christ, yr BC is the number of years before 1AD

BP

Before Present, i.e. before 1950 AD

C

Condensation

CDW

Circumpolar Deep Water

CGCM

Coupled General Circulation Model

${c}_{p}$

Specific heat (J kg^{1} K^{1})

CRF

Cloud Radiative Forcing

DGVM

Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

DIC

Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

DJF

December, January and February

E

Evaporation

EBM

Energy Balance Model

ecc

Eccentricity

EMIC

Earth Model of Intermediate Complexity

ENSO

El Niño Southern Oscillation

${e}_{s}$

Saturation vapour pressure (Pa)

${f}_{f}$

Feedback factor

F_{fric}

Force due to friction

${F}_{IR\downarrow}$

Downward longwave radiation at the surface (W m^{2})

${F}_{IR\uparrow}$

Upward longwave radiation at the surface (W m^{2})

F_{LH}

Latent heat flux at the surface (W m^{2})

F_{SH}

Sensible heat flux at the surface (W m^{2})

F_{SOL}

Incoming solar radiation at the surface (W m^{2})

g

Acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (= 9.8
m s^{2})

GCM

General Circulation Model

GtC

Gigaton of carbon (10^{15} grams of carbon)

HA

Hour Angle

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (http://www.ipcc.ch/)

ITCZ

Intertropical Convergence Zone

J

Joule

JJA

June, July and August

K

Kelvin

ka

1000 years

K_{H}

Solubility (of CO_{2})

kyr

1000 years

L_{f}

Latent heat of fusion of water (= 334
kJ kg^{1} at 0^{o}C)

LGM

Last Glacial Maximum (around 21 kyr BP)

L_{v}

Latent heat of vaporisation of water (= 2250
kJ kg^{1} at 100^{o}C, 2500
kJ kg^{1} at 0^{o}C)

m

Metre

NADW

North Atlantic Deep Water

NAM

Northern Annular Mode

NAO

North Atlantic Oscillation

nm

Nanometre (10^{9} m)

NPP

Net Primary Production

OGCM

Ocean General Circulation Model

p

Pressure (Pa)

p_{s}

Surface pressure (Pa)

P

Precipitation

Pa

Pascal

PDE

Partial Differential Equations

PERH

Longitude of the perihelion measured
from the autumn equinox

PETM

Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum

PFT

Plant Functional Type

PgC

Petagrams of carbon (10^{15} grams of carbon)

ppb

Parts per billion

ppm

Parts per million

psu

Practical salinity unit

PW

10^{15} W

q

Specific humidity (kg/kg)

R

Earth's radius (= 6371 km)

R_{g}

Perfect gas constant

RF_{TOA}

Net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (W m^{2})

RH

Relative Humidity

r_{m}

Mean distance between the Earth and the Sun

RMS

Root Mean Square

R_{riv}

River runoff

R_{v}

Gas constant for water vapour (= 461.39
J kg^{1} K^{1})

S

Ocean salinity

S_{0}

Solar constant (~ 1368 W m^{2})

SAM

Southern Annular Mode

SLP

Sea Level Pressure

SOI

Southern Oscillation Index

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

Sv

Sverdrup (= 10^{6}
m^{3} s^{1})

TCR

Transient Climate Response

T_{e}

Effective emission temperature of the Earth

T_{s}

Surface temperature

$\stackrel{\u20d7}{v}$

Velocity vector

W

Watt

WMO

World Meteorological Organisation

yr

Year

z

Altitude depth, measured from the bottom upwards
